European Higher Education: The Legal Foundations of the Bologna Process

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European Higher Education: The Legal Foundations of the Bologna Process

Twenty years have elapsed since European states launched the Bologna Process for cooperation and harmonisation in the area of European higher education. This article explores the legal framework for the Bologna Process and the preference for soft law mechanisms over more formal legal instruments. The discussion considers the strengths and weaknesses of this approach to standard setting and compliance and reflects on some of the broader implications for transparency and accountability of state action in European higher education.